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yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">1.1淬火钢中的马氏体</span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">高碳铬钢原始¾l„织为粒状珠光体æ—Óž¼Œåœ¨æ·¬ç«ä½Žæ¸©å›žç«çŠ¶æ€ä¸‹åQŒæ·¬ç«é©¬æ°ä½“含碳量,显著影响钢的力学性能。强度、韧性在0.5%左右åQŒæŽ¥è§¦ç–²åŠ›_¯¿å‘½åœ¨0.55%左右åQŒæŠ—压溃能力åœ?.42%左右åQŒå½“GCr15钢淬火马氏体含碳量äؓ0.5%ï½?.56%æ—Óž¼Œå¯ä»¥èŽ·å¾—抗失效能力最强的¾l¼åˆåŠ›å­¦æ€§èƒ½ã€?/span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">在这¿Uæƒ…况下获得的马氏体是隐晉™©¬æ°ä½“åQŒæµ‹å¾—的含碳量是òq›_‡å«ç¢³é‡ã€‚实际上åQŒé©¬æ°ä½“中的含碳量在微区内是不均匀的,靠近¼„›_Œ–物周围的¼„Ïxµ“度高于远¼›È¢³åŒ–物原铁素体部分åQŒå› è€Œå®ƒä»¬å¼€å§‹å‘生马氏体转变的温度不同,从而抑制了马氏体晶¾_’的长大和显微åŞ态的昄¡¤ºè€Œæˆä¸ºéšæ™‰™©¬æ°ä½“。它可避免高¼„³é’¢æ·¬ç«æ—¶æ˜“出现的显微裂¾U¹ï¼Œè€Œä¸”其亚¾l“构为强度与韧性均高的位错型板条状马氏体。因此,只有当高¼„³é’¢æ·¬ç«æ—¶èŽ·å¾—中¼„³éšæ™‰™©¬æ°ä½“æ—¶èáu扉K›¶ä»¶æ‰å¯èƒ½èŽ·å¾—抗失效能力最好的åŸÞZ½“ã€?/span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">1.2淬火钢中的残留奥氏体</span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">高碳铬钢¾læ­£å¸¸æ·¬ç«åŽåQŒå¯å«æœ‰8%ï½?0%Ar(ŒD‹ç•™å¥¥æ°ä½?。èáu扉K›¶ä»¶ä¸­çš„Ar有利也有弊,ä¸ÞZº†å…´åˆ©é™¤å¼ŠåQŒAr含量应适当。由于Ar量主要与淬火加热奥氏体化条äšg有关åQŒå®ƒçš„多ž®‘又会媄响淬火马氏体的含¼„³é‡å’Œæœªæº¶ç¢³åŒ–物的数量,较难正确反映Ar量对力学性能的媄响。äؓ此,固定奥氏条äšgåQŒåˆ©ç”¨å¥¥æ°ä½“体化热稳定化处理工艺åQŒä»¥èŽ·å¾—不同Ar量,在此研究了淬火低温回火后Ar含量对GCr15钢硬度和接触疲劳寿命的媄响。随着奥氏体含量的增多åQŒç¡¬åº¦å’ŒæŽ¥è§¦ç–²åŠ³å¯¿å‘½å‡éšä¹‹è€Œå¢žåŠ ï¼Œè¾‘Öˆ°å³°å€¼åŽåˆéšä¹‹è€Œé™ä½Žï¼Œä½†å…¶å³°å€¼çš„Ar含量不同åQŒç¡¬åº¦å³°å€¼å‡ºçŽ°åœ¨17%Ar左右åQŒè€ŒæŽ¥è§¦ç–²åŠ›_¯¿å‘½å³°å€¼å‡ºçŽ°åœ¨9%左右。当试验载荷减小æ—Óž¼Œå› Ar量增多对接触疲劳寿命的媄响减ž®ã€‚这是由于当Ar量不多时对强度降低的影响不大åQŒè€Œå¢žéŸ§çš„作用则比较显著。原因是载荷较小æ—Óž¼ŒAr发生ž®‘量形变åQŒæ—¢æ¶ˆå‡äº†åº”力峰åQŒåˆä½¿å·²å½¢å˜çš„Ar加工强化和发生应力应变诱发马氏体相变而强化。但如蝲荷大æ—Óž¼ŒAr较大的塑性åŞ变与åŸÞZ½“会局部äñ”生应力集中而破裂,从而ä‹É寿命降低。应该指出,Ar的有利作用必™åÀL˜¯åœ¨Ar½E›_®šçŠ¶æ€ä¹‹ä¸‹ï¼Œå¦‚果自发转变为马氏体åQŒå°†ä½‰K’¢çš„韧性急剧降低而脆化ã€?/span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">1.3淬火钢中的未溶碳化物</span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">淬火钢中未溶¼„›_Œ–物的数量、åŞ貌、大ž®ã€åˆ†å¸ƒï¼Œæ—¢å—到钢的化学成分和淬火前原始组¾l‡çš„影响åQŒåˆå—奥氏体化条件的影响åQŒæœ‰å…Ïxœªæº¶ç¢³åŒ–物对èáu承寿命的影响研究较少。碳化物是硬脆相åQŒé™¤äº†å¯¹è€ç£¨æ€§æœ‰åˆ©ä¹‹å¤–,承蝲时因ä¼?特别是碳化物呈非球åŞ)与基体引起应力集中而äñ”生裂¾U¹ï¼Œä»Žè€Œä¼šé™ä½ŽéŸ§æ€§å’Œç–²åŠ³æŠ—力。淬火未溶碳化物除了自èín寚w’¢çš„性能产生影响之外åQŒè¿˜å½±å“æ·¬ç«é©¬æ°ä½“的含碳量和Ar含量及分布,从而对钢的性能产生附加影响。äؓ了揭½Cºæœªæº¶ç¢³åŒ–物å¯ÒŽ€§èƒ½çš„媄响,采用不同含碳量的钢,淬火后ä‹É光™©¬æ°ä½“含碳量和Ar含量相同而未溶碳化物含量不同的状态,¾l?50℃回火后åQŒç”±äºŽé©¬æ°ä½“含碳量相同,而且¼‹¬åº¦è¾ƒé«˜åQŒå› è€Œæœªæº¶ç¢³åŒ–物ž®‘量增高对硬度增高å€ég¸å¤§ï¼Œåæ˜ å¼ºåº¦å’ŒéŸ§æ€§çš„压溃载荷则有所降低åQŒå¯¹åº”力集中敏感的接触疲力_¯¿å‘½åˆ™æ˜¾è‘—降低。因此淬火未溶碳化物˜q‡å¤šå¯šw’¢çš„综合力学性能和失效抗力是有害的。适当降低轴承钢的含碳量是提高制äšg使用寿命的途径之一ã€?/span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">淬火未溶¼„›_Œ–物除了数量对材料性能有媄响之外,ž®ºå¯¸ã€åŞ貌、分布也å¯ÒŽæ–™æ€§èƒ½äº§ç”Ÿå½±å“ã€‚äؓ了避免èáu扉K’¢ä¸­æœªæº¶ç¢³åŒ–物的危宻I¼Œè¦æ±‚未溶¼„›_Œ–物少(数量ž®?、小(ž®ºå¯¸ž®?、匀(大小彼此相差很小åQŒè€Œä¸”分布均匀)、圆(每粒¼„›_Œ–物皆呈球å½?。应该指出,轴承钢淬火后有少量未溶碳化物是必要的åQŒä¸ä»…可以保持èƒö够的耐磨性,而且也是获得¾l†æ™¶¾_’隐晉™©¬æ°ä½“的必备条件ã€?/span><br /> <br /> <img src="http://www.jpxtrade.com/uploads/image/20210329/20210329155918_5197.jpg" alt="" style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;white-space:normal;background-color:#FFFFFF;max-width:100%;" /><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">1.4淬火回火后的ŒD‹ç•™åº”力</span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">轴承零äšg¾læ·¬ç«ä½Žæ¸©å›žç«åŽåQŒä»å…ähœ‰è¾ƒå¤§çš„内应力。零件中的残留内应力有利和弊两种状态。钢件热处理后,随着表面ŒD‹ç•™åŽ‹åº”力的增大åQŒé’¢çš„疲力_¼ºåº¦éšä¹‹å¢žé«˜ï¼Œåä¹‹è¡¨é¢ŒD‹ç•™å†…应力äؓ拉应力时åQŒåˆ™ä½‰K’¢çš„疲力_¼ºåº¦é™ä½Žã€‚这是由于零件的疲劳失效出现在承受过大拉应力的时候,当表面有较大压应力残存时åQŒä¼šæŠ‰|¶ˆåŒç­‰æ•°å€¼çš„拉应力,而ä‹É钢的实际承受拉应力数值减ž®ï¼Œä½¿ç–²åŠ›_¼ºåº¦æžé™å€¼å¢žé«˜ï¼Œå½“表面有较大拉应力残存时åQŒä¼šä¸Žæ‰¿å—的拉应力蝲荷叠加而ä‹É钢的实际承受的拉应力显著增大åQŒå³ä½¿ç–²åŠ›_¼ºåº¦æžé™å€¼é™ä½Žã€‚因此,使èáu扉K›¶ä»¶æ·¬ç«å›žç«åŽè¡¨é¢ŒD‹ç•™è¾ƒå¤§çš„压应力åQŒä¹Ÿæ˜¯æé«˜ä‹É用寿命的措施之一(当然˜q‡å¤§çš„残留应力可能引起零件的形变甚至开裂,应予以èƒö够重è§?ã€?/span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">1.5钢的杂质含量</span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">钢中的杂质包括非金属å¤ÒŽ‚物和有害元素(酸溶)含量åQŒå®ƒä»¬å¯¹é’¢æ€§èƒ½çš„危宛_¾€å¾€æ˜¯ç›¸äº’助长的åQŒå¦‚氧含量越高,氧化物夹杂物ž®Þp¶Šå¤šã€‚钢中杂质对力学性能和制件抗失效能力的媄响与杂质的类型、性质、数量、大ž®åŠå½¢çŠ¶æœ‰å…³åQŒä½†é€šå¸¸éƒ½æœ‰é™ä½ŽéŸ§æ€§ã€å¡‘性和疲劳寿命的作用ã€?/span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">随着å¤ÒŽ‚物尺寸的增大åQŒç–²åŠ›_¼ºåº¦éšä¹‹è€Œé™ä½Žï¼Œè€Œä¸”钢的抗拉强度­‘Šé«˜åQŒé™ä½Žè¶‹åŠ¿åŠ å¤§ã€‚钢中含氧量增高(氧化物夹杂增å¤?åQŒå¼¯æ›²ç–²åŠ›_’ŒæŽ¥è§¦ç–²åŠ³å¯¿å‘½åœ¨é«˜åº”力作用下也随之降低。因此,对于在高应力下工作的轴承零äšgåQŒé™ä½Žåˆ¶é€ ç”¨é’¢çš„含氧量是必要的。一些研½I¶è¡¨æ˜Žï¼Œé’¢ä¸­çš„MnSå¤ÒŽ‚物,因åŞ状呈椭球çŠ?而且能够包裹危害较大的氧化物å¤ÒŽ‚,故其对疲力_¯¿å‘½é™ä½Žåª„响较ž®ç”šè‡Œ™¿˜å¯èƒ½æœ‰ç›Š,故可从宽控制ã€?/span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">2 影响轴承寿命的材料因素的控制</span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">ä¸ÞZº†è®©åª„响èáu承寿命的材料因素处于最好状态,首先需要控制淬火前钢的原始¾l„织åQŒå¯ä»¥é‡‡å–的技术措施有åQšé«˜æ¸?1050â„?奥氏体化速冷è‡?30℃等温正火获得伪共析¾l†ç å…‰ä½“¾l„织åQŒæˆ–者冷è‡?20℃等温处理,获得贝氏体组¾l‡ã€‚也可采用锻轧余热快速退火,获得¾l†ç²’状珠光体¾l„织åQŒä»¥ä¿è¯é’¢ä¸­çš„碳化物¾l†å°å’Œå‡åŒ€åˆ†å¸ƒã€‚è¿™¿UçŠ¶æ€çš„原始¾l„织在淬火加热奥氏体化时åQŒé™¤äº†æº¶å…¥å¥¥æ°ä½“中的¼„›_Œ–物外åQŒæœªæº¶ç¢³åŒ–物ž®†èšé›†æˆ¾l†ç²’状ã€?/span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">当钢中的原始¾l„织一定时åQŒæ·¬ç«é©¬æ°ä½“的含¼„³é‡(åÏx·¬ç«åŠ çƒ­åŽçš„奥氏体含碳é‡?、残留奥氏体量和未溶¼„›_Œ–物量主要取决于淬火加热温度和保持旉™—´åQŒéšç€æ·¬ç«åŠ çƒ­æ¸©åº¦å¢žé«˜(旉™—´ä¸€å®?åQŒé’¢ä¸­æœªæº¶ç¢³åŒ–物数量减少(淬火马氏体含¼„³é‡å¢žé«˜)、残留奥氏体数量增多åQŒç¡¬åº¦åˆ™å…ˆéšç€æ·¬ç«æ¸©åº¦çš„增高而增加,辑ֈ°å³°å€¼åŽåˆéšç€æ¸©åº¦çš„升高而降低。当淬火加热温度一定时åQŒéšç€å¥¥æ°ä½“化旉™—´çš„åšg长,未溶¼„›_Œ–物的数量减少åQŒæ®‹ç•™å¥¥æ°ä½“数量增多åQŒç¡¬åº¦å¢žé«˜ï¼Œæ—‰™—´è¾ƒé•¿æ—Óž¼Œ˜q™ç§­‘‹åŠ¿å‡ç¼“。当原始¾l„织中碳化物¾l†å°æ—Óž¼Œå› ç¢³åŒ–物易于溶入奥氏体,故ä‹É淬火后的¼‹¬åº¦å³°ç§»å‘较低温度和出现在较短的奥氏体化旉™—´ã€?/span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">¾lég¸Šæ‰€˜qŽÍ¼ŒGCrl5钢淬火后未溶¼„›_Œ–物在7%左右åQŒæ®‹ç•™å¥¥æ°ä½“åœ?%左右(隐晶马氏体的òq›_‡å«ç¢³é‡åœ¨0.55%左右)为最好组¾l‡ç»„成。而且åQŒå½“原始¾l„织中碳化物¾l†å°åQŒåˆ†å¸ƒå‡åŒ€æ—Óž¼Œåœ¨å¯é åœ°æŽ§åˆ¶ä¸Šè¿°æ°´åã^的显微组¾l‡ç»„成时åQŒæœ‰åˆ©äºŽèŽ·å¾—高的¾l¼åˆåŠ›å­¦æ€§èƒ½åQŒä»Žè€Œå…·æœ‰é«˜çš„ä‹É用寿命。应该指出,å…ähœ‰¾l†å°å¼¥æ•£åˆ†å¸ƒ¼„›_Œ–物的原始¾l„织åQŒæ·¬ç«åŠ çƒ­ä¿æ¸©æ—¶åQŒæœªæº¶çš„¾l†å°¼„›_Œ–物会聚集长大åQŒä‹É其粗化。因此,对于å…ähœ‰˜q™ç§çš„原始组¾l‡èáu扉K›¶ä»¶æ·¬ç«åŠ çƒ­æ—¶é—´ä¸å®œè¿‡é•¿ï¼Œé‡‡ç”¨å¿«é€ŸåŠ çƒ­å¥¥æ°ä½“化淬火工艺,ž®†å¯èŽ·å¾—更高的综合力学性能ã€?/span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">ä¸ÞZº†ä½¿èáu扉K›¶ä»¶æ·¬å›žç«åŽè¡¨é¢æ®‹ç•™è¾ƒå¤§çš„压应力,可在淬火加热旉™€šå…¥æ¸—碳或渗氮的气氛åQŒè¿›è¡ŒçŸ­æ—‰™—´çš„表面渗¼„Ïxˆ–渗æÛ。由于这¿Ué’¢æ·¬ç«åŠ çƒ­æ—¶å¥¥æ°ä½“实际含碳量不高,˜qœä½ŽäºŽç›¸å›¾ä¸Š½Cºå‡ºçš„åã^衡浓度,因此可以吸碳(或æÛ)。当奥氏体含有较高的¼„Ïxˆ–氮后åQŒå…¶Ms降低åQŒæ·¬ç«æ—¶è¡¨å±‚较内层和心部后发生马氏体转变åQŒäñ”生了较大的残留压应力。GCrl5钢以渗碳气氛和非渗碳气氛加热淬火(均经低温回火)处理å?¾læŽ¥è§¦ç–²åŠŒ™¯•éªŒå¯ä»¥çœ‹å‡ºï¼Œè¡¨é¢æ¸—碳的寿命比未渗¼„³çš„提高äº?.5倍。其原因ž®±æ˜¯æ¸—碳的零件表面具有较大的ŒD‹ç•™åŽ‹åº”力ã€?/span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">3 ¾l“论</span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">影响高碳铬钢<a target="_blank">滚动轴承</a>零äšg使用寿命的主要材料因素及控制½E‹åº¦ä¸ºï¼š</span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">(1)钢在淬火前的原始¾l„织中的¼„›_Œ–物要求细ž®ã€å×I散。可采用高温奥氏体化630℃、或420℃高æ¸?也可利用锻蝾余热快速退火工艺来实现ã€?/span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">(2)对于GCr15钢淬火后åQŒè¦æ±‚获得åã^均含¼„³é‡ä¸?.55%左右的隐晉™©¬æ°ä½“ã€?%左右Arå’?%左右呈匀、圆状态的未溶¼„›_Œ–物的昑־®¾l„织。可利用淬火加热温度和时间来控制得到˜q™ç§æ˜‘Ö¾®¾l„织ã€?/span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">(3)零äšg淬火低温回火后要求表面残留有较大的压应力åQŒè¿™æœ‰åŠ©äºŽç–²åŠÏxŠ—力的提高。可采用在淬火加热时˜q›è¡Œè¡¨é¢çŸ­æ—¶é—´æ¸—¼„Ïxˆ–渗æÛ的处理工艺,使得表面ŒD‹ç•™æœ‰è¾ƒå¤§çš„压应力ã€?/span><br /> <br /> <span style="color:#666666;font-family:"microsoft yahei", 宋体;font-size:14px;background-color:#FFFFFF;">(4)刉™€ èáu扉K›¶ä»¶ç”¨é’¢ï¼Œè¦æ±‚å…ähœ‰è¾ƒé«˜çš„纯净度,主要是减ž®‘O2、N2、P、氧化物和磷化物的含量。可采用甉|¸£é‡ç†”åQŒçœŸ½Iºå†¶ç‚¼ç­‰æŠ€æœ¯æŽªæ–½ä‹É材料含氧量≤15PPM为宜ã€?/span> </div> <div class="gduo"> <div>上一æ?<a href="117.html">轴承噪音大是什么什么原因导致的å‘?/a></div> <div>下一æ?<a href="115.html">重庆滚动轴承的基本结构和分类有哪äº?/a></div> </div> <!--<div class="gduo"> <p>标签åQ?/p> </div>--> </div> </div> <div class="left2bot"></div> 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